Q. Describe special features of the Indian Constitution.

The constitution of India is a unique, living organic document of the world. The salient features of the Constitution of India can be discussed as follows:

I.                     Longest written constitution: Indian Constitution is a very detailed constitution. It took the Assembly 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to write and enact the Constitution.

II.                   It contains values like: democratic socialism, secularism, justice for all, equality of Law and equality before laws,

III.                 It provides a republican ruling structure.

Note: Republican ruling structure means; where the head of the state is not hereditary but elected: either by the direct election or indirect election.

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IV.                Mixture of Federalism and Unitarianism: Dual-polity, supremacy of Constitution, Written and rigid Constitution, bicameral legislature in Centre and independent judiciary are the basic features of the Federalism, and in India, we have adopted all of them. But at the same time, strong Centre, refrain from using word “Federal” in whole Constitution, Parliament’s authority over state list, single citizenship, flexibility in amending the Constitution, disproportionate representation of states in Council of States, provisions related to all India services and integrated Judiciary; made India a unitary governance system.

V.                  Independent judiciary,

VI.                Enshrined the concept of separation of powers, Art 50 of Constitution of India.

VII.               Integrated judiciary for whole country: integrated judiciary means; in India, we have judicial hierarchy, with Supreme Court is on its top. It exercises the appellate jurisdiction over all other High Courts.

VIII.             Mixture of Rigidity and Flexibility,

IX.                 It itself contains a separate chapter on Fundamental Rights,

X.                   It also provides for Directive Principles of State Policy, in the form of directions to the state,

XI.                 Parliamentary System,

XII.               Bi-Cameral Union Parliament:


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